The node decides by itself whether to permit a particular user to view, edit, delete, comment etc. the content that is posted on the node. That includes the comments - if you commented a post on someone’s node, the owner of the node decides from that moment whether to allow you or somebody else to edit or delete it. But your signature cannot be forged, so if somebody edited your comment, the fact of the editing will be visible to everyone.
Access controls may be implemented in many ways, but all these internal implementation details are not visible to the client (except the owner). Node simply do not return the content that the user is not allowed to view or returns error in the answer to the editing request, if the user is not allowed to edit - without any explanation. However, the node may return hints that help user to know in advance what operations he may be allowed to perform. But they do not guarantee that the operation will be allowed, they are just hints. They may be used to hide or gray out some buttons or menu items.
For each post, comment etc. the node returns a list of operations that may be performed on it, and for each operation - a list of groups of users that are allowed to perform the operation. There are only names of the groups, without any details. Some names are standard - “admin”, “owner”, “moderator”. Other are meaningless strings or numbers - this is recommended for privacy, to keep the real purpose of the groups in secret.
Every user may ask the node about himself (and only himself) - what groups he is included into. With this information he can predict what operations he may be allowed to perform.
Public operations (like viewing public posts) are allowed to any user without authentication. There is no way to deny a public operation for anybody.
If you want to perform an operation that is allowed only for a limited group of users, you need to authenticate. The authentication mechanism is explained in a separate chapter. Note that signing is needed not only for posting something. Getting information may also require signature, if some posts are hidden from the public. The information about your own permissions (see above) is also accessible only by signed request.
To protect against replay attacks, the request data that is signed must include the name of the target node, the subject, the current timestamp and a sequential number. The signature is valid only for a short period of time and sequential numbers must increase with every request.
We prefer to use signatures everywhere, not tokens, because they are bound to the request. Leaked signature is useless for the attacker. But for interactions with the home node we have no alternative to tokens. (Of course, we protect all communications with SSL.) There may be restricted tokens, that allow read-only access or only access to certain information - they are useful for backup scripts, auto-responders etc.
We call friends the users that have some permissions on your node that public do not have. Friends are not subscribers. Subscribers follow your publications, but if they are not friends, they do not see “friends only” publications and may be restricted in other ways. And vice versa, not all friends are subscribers.
The above means that the “friendship” is not mutual. When somebody subscribes to you or gives you some permissions, you are not required to do the same. But she may send you a request asking to give her extended access. Since she usually do not know, what group of users you have, the request has a generic form (maybe, with some personal message). It appears in your notifications box and you can accept, decline or dismiss it (decline without informing the requester).
Ban means placing a user into a list of particularly restricted users. Ban means different things in different social networks. There are some of them:
Besides of bans, nobody can stop you from implementing any system of warnings, temporary bans, karma - anything you’ve seen on forums, in FIDO or invented by yourself.
As we already said, if you wrote a post in a group or commented under somebody’s post, you do not control your publication. The node, where the publication is located controls everything - who can view it, edit or delete. But you can ask the node to obey some of your personal restrictions (for example, to stop somebody from commenting under your post) and the node can make you a favor. Specifically, the node may do a request to your home node to check, whether, for example, you allow the given user to comment under your post.