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Python Library

moeralib (GitHub) is a library that allows Python applications to easily interact with the Moera network.

The easiest way to install the library is from PyPI repository:

pip install moeralib

Naming API

moeralib.naming module contains classes and routines for interacting with Moera naming service. To access a naming server, create MoeraNaming class and pass the naming server URL in the parameters. There are constants for two well-known servers: MAIN_SERVER and DEV_SERVER. The first one is used by default by MoeraNaming.

from moeralib.naming import MoeraNaming, DEV_SERVER

naming = MoeraNaming(DEV_SERVER)
info = naming.get_current('balu-dev', 0)

A shortcut function resolve() simplifies resolving of names.

from moeralib.naming import resolve, DEV_SERVER

print(resolve('balu-dev_0', naming_server=DEV_SERVER))

Node API

moeralib.node module contains classes and routines for accessing Moera nodes. Just create MoeraNode class with the URL of the node, and call the methods you need.

from moeralib.naming import resolve
from moeralib.node import MoeraNode

node = MoeraNode(resolve('Alice'))

The library automatically parses JSON structures coming from the node and converts them to Python objects derived from Structure class. If some field is not present in JSON, the corresponding field in Python is set to None.


Inputs and outputs of API calls are represented as plain Python classes derived from Structure class. All structures have a constructor with keyword parameters that correspond to fields of the structure. You can use the constructor to initialize a structure. These code snippets are equivalent:

attrs = DomainAttributes()
attrs.name = 'dave.moera.club'
attrs.node_id = DAVE_NODE_ID
attrs = DomainAttributes(

There are two more methods designed to be used internally.

from_json() method creates a structure object from a JSON object represented as a dict (as returned from json.load()). The method automatically converts field names from camel case to snake case (if needed) and creates nested structures in accordance with fields’ type specifications.

json() method converts the structure back to a dict representing a JSON structure, converting all field names to camel case.


Read more about authentication in the Node API reference.

To perform an authenticated request, you need to put the root secret, token, or carte into MoeraNode and activate the corresponding authentication mode. Use root_secret(), token(), and carte() methods to set the root secret, token, and carte correspondingly. The authentication mode is activated by generic auth_method(), or by shortcut methods no_auth(), auth(), auth_admin(), auth_root_admin(). After that, all API requests will be authenticated with the selected method, if needed. You can switch to a different method at any time.

from moeralib.naming import resolve
from moeralib.node import MoeraNode

node = MoeraNode(resolve('Alice'))

Managing cartes

MoeraCarteSource class simplifies managing authentication cartes. It obtains cartes from a home node, caches them, supplies valid cartes for authentication, and requests new ones when old ones expire.

from moeralib.naming import resolve
from moeralib.node import MoeraCarteSource, MoeraNode

home = MoeraNode(resolve('Alice'))

node = MoeraNode(resolve('Bob'))
slice = node.get_feed_slice('timeline')
for story in slice.stories:
    if story.posting is not None:
        print(story.posting.operations.view, story.posting.heading)

Universal URLs

moeralib.universal_location module contains classes and routines for creating and parsing Moera universal URLs.

To parse a universal URL, pass it to parse() function. It returns a UniversalLocation instance containing the result of parsing.

from moeralib.universal_location import parse

uni = parse('https://moera.page/@Alice/alice.moera.blog/post/69a403ef-b72d-43e0-967e-eab5e8dce9d3')
print(uni.node_name, uni.authority, uni.path)

To build a universal URL from parts, use redirect_to() function.

from moeralib.universal_location import redirect_to


redirect_to_url() function converts URL of a page on a node to a corresponding universal URL.

from moeralib.universal_location import redirect_to_url



moeralib.crypto module provides utilities for generation of cryptographic keys, signing fingerprints and validating signatures. These functions are wrappers around cryptography library using the algorithms defined in the Moera protocol.

Functions for building fingerprints for various objects are defined in moeralib.naming.fingerprints and moeralib.node.fingerprints modules. (The functions may have several versions for different versions of the fingerprint.)

The following code changes a node URL on the naming server. (The user should provide mnemonic of the updating key.)

from moeralib import naming
from moeralib.crypto import sign_fingerprint, mnemonic_to_private_key
from moeralib.naming.fingerprints import create_put_call_fingerprint0

private_updating_key = mnemonic_to_private_key(mnemonic)

srv = naming.MoeraNaming()
info = srv.get_current(name, generation)

fingerprint = create_put_call_fingerprint0(
    name, generation, info.updating_key, new_node_uri, info.signing_key,
    info.valid_from, info.digest
signature = sign_fingerprint(fingerprint, private_updating_key)

srv.put(name, generation, None, new_node_uri, None, None, info.digest, signature)